A triple tribute to Funk: Funkotriplogynium iagobadius

Juvenile antennophorine mite

For no particular reason, other than it being a really good mite, I offer a view of a very dead juvenile collected in association with the infamous Funkotriplogynium iagobadius Seeman & Walter, 1997. Mites in the Antennophorina (Mesostigmata) are best known as associates of large arthropods, especially beetles and millipedes, but some live with ants, bees and termites, and others with cockroaches and earwigs living in stable habitats such as under rocks and in logs. For example, Paradiplogynium nahmani Seeman, 2007, was described from Australia’s Colossus Earwig Titanolabis colossea (Dohrn 1864) – at about 6 cm long, one of the World’s largest Dermaptera. Antennophorine mites are no slouches when it comes to size either. Adult Diplogyniidae, the earwig mite’s family, usually approach a millimetre in length and some of the Megisthanus on passalid beetles reach 5-6 mm in body length, as large as some ticks. Diplogynium Canestrini, 1888, type genus of Diplogyniidae Trägårdh, 1941, is but one of forty-odd genera and almost 100 described species in that family , and although the largest family of Antennophorina, is but one among 21 families grouped in 7 superfamilies.

Mop-like cheliceral excrescences of Micromegistus – an associate of carabid beetles

In spite of these mites being relatively large and living on often well-studied arthropods, little is know of their life history. The ant associates in Antennophorus make their living by making ants regurgitate food (sounds disgusting, but it’s a life). But for others it isn’t clear: the adults hang out on their hosts doing something with their mouthparts from which large mop-like excrescences dangle. What they are doing, however, is a mystery. Some authors have hypothesized that they feed on the ‘dermal secretions’ of their hosts. The larvae and nymphs are usually not found on the arthropods, so they are almost completely unknown, but some have been found wandering in galleries and have been thought to ‘scavenge’ or feed on fungi, the usual default guesses for  ‘I don’t know’.

Mysterious mouthparts of Megisthanus – an associate of passalid beetles

Fortunately, not all Antennophorina are inveterately found on large arthropods: a few are more or less free-living. One such group is the rather plesiotypic family Triplogyniidae, based on the then new genus and species Triplogynium krantzi Funk, 1977, from Central Africa. In 1985 AK Datta described a second genus in the family and added Dick Funk’s name to create the rather earthy, but not at all syncopated, name Funkotriplogynium. This latter genus also occurs in Australia and a student, Owen Seeman, and I were able to both observe feeding by the adults and describe the juveniles. This gave us an indication that predation was the basal mode of feeding in Antennophorina and gave Owen the opportunity to win fame and infamy with his species name. Owen has a lot of things to answer for (my having to feed chickens the first thing in the morning immediately comes to mind), but he has earned his spurs as an acarologist by almost singlehandedly exposing the mysteries of antennophorine development and ecology. Although much remains to be explained, including the function of those fabulous excrescences, it seems clear now that taking a bite out of whatever arthropods or worms are encountered while wandering in the galleries and nests of their hosts is the first thing on the minds of many antennophorines.

These teeth were made for biting and that’s just what they do

References:

Datta AK. 1985. A new genus and species of the family Triplogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from Assam, India. Indian Journal of Acarology 9: 48-56.

Funk RC. 1977. Triplogynium krantzi n.g., n. sp., type of Triplogyniidae (Mesosligmata: Celaenopsoidea). International Journal of Acarology 3: 71-79.

Seeman OD & Walter DE. 1997. A new species of Triplogyniidae (Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea) from Australian rainforests. International Journal of Acarology 23: 49-59.

Seeman OD. 2000. The immature stages of the Fedrizziidae (Mesostigmata: Fedrizzoidea). Acarologia 41: 39-52.

Seeman OD. 2007. A new species of Paradiplogynium (Acari: Diplogyniidae) from Titanolabis colossea (Dohrn) (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae), Australia’s largest earwig. Zootaxa 1386: 31-38.

Seeman O.D. 2012  Larva and deutonymph of Promegistus armstrongi Womersley (Acari: Mesostigmata: Trigynaspida: Promegistidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Nature 56(1): 255-269.

3 Responses to “A triple tribute to Funk: Funkotriplogynium iagobadius”

  1. Laurie Knight (@_lauriek) Says:

    Do you know what sort of mite this is:-

    Spider mite (likely Tetranychus)

    (Sorry to jump in on this post, couldn’t find an email link for you!)
    Cheers!

    • macromite Says:

      Hi Laurie,

      It is a spider mite and looks like the genus Tetranychus (most likely unless you got it from a woody plant). Red spider mites are usually red – carotenoids in the cuticle that protect against UV and help with cold tolerance during winter (in the Fall, even green spider mites turn red).

      Cheers,

      Macromite

  2. Laurie Knight (@_lauriek) Says:

    Many thanks!🙂

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